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It was originally intended to dispense petrol but the patent covered all uses. In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a "prior art device".
Specifically his nd patent US , which was first filed on 30 June and granted 26 February The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc.
The Bankograph was an automated envelope deposit machine accepting coins, cash and cheques and did not have cash dispensing features.
I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash. Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher which was retained by the machine, while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic stripe at the back.
They used principles including Carbon and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult. The essence of this system was that it enabled the verification of the customer with the debited account without human intervention.
This patent is also the earliest instance of a complete "currency dispenser system" in the patent record. It had a profound influence on the industry as a whole.
Devices designed by British i. Chubb, De La Rue and Swedish i. Asea Meteor quickly spread out. Customers were given personal code numbers to activate the machines, similar to the modern PIN.
These were fed into the machine, and the corresponding amount debited from the customer's account. This was the first ATM installed in Australia.
This device dispensed 1, peseta bills 1 to 5 max. Each user had to introduce a security personal key using a combination of the ten numeric buttons.
The first ATMs were designed to dispense a fixed amount of cash when a user inserted a specially coded card. Chemical executives were initially hesitant about the electronic banking transition given the high cost of the early machines.
Additionally, executives were concerned that customers would resist having machines handling their money.
By , Docutel had acquired 70 percent of the U. Patent 3,, ; the application had been filed in October and the patent was granted in However, the U.
Patent and U. Patent 3,68, These patents are all credited to Kenneth S. Busicom manufactured these microprocessor-based automated teller machines for several buyers, with NCR Corporation as the main customer.
Patent 3,, for his PIN verification system, which included an encoded card reader and described a system that utilized encryption techniques to assure telephone link security while entering personal ID information that was transmitted to a remote location for verification.
It was a card reader and customer identification system , providing a terminal with plastic card and PIN capabilities. The Identikey system consisted of a card reader console, two customer PIN pads , intelligent controller and built-in electronic interface package.
It allowed the customer to type in a secret code, which is transformed by the device, using a microprocessor, into another code for the teller.
This process replaced manual entry and avoided possible key stroke errors. It allowed users to replace traditional customer verification methods such as signature verification and test questions with a secure PIN system.
All were online and issued a variable amount which was immediately deducted from the account. A small number of s were supplied to a U. The first switching system to enable shared automated teller machines between banks went into production operation on 3 February , in Denver, Colorado, in an effort by Colorado National Bank of Denver and Kranzley and Company of Cherry Hill, New Jersey.
ATMs may be on- and off-premises. On-premises ATMs are typically more advanced, multi-function machines that complement a bank branch's capabilities, and are thus more expensive.
Off-premises machines are deployed by financial institutions and independent sales organisations ISOs where there is a simple need for cash, so they are generally cheaper single function devices.
In the US, Canada and some Gulf countries , [ citation needed ] banks may have drive-thru lanes providing access to ATMs using an automobile.
In recent times, countries like India and some countries in Africa are installing ATMs in rural areas, which are solar powered.
Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks , enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their accounts or in the countries where their accounts are held enabling cash withdrawals in local currency.
ATMs rely on authorization of a financial transaction by the card issuer or other authorizing institution on a communications network.
This is often performed through an ISO messaging system. Many banks charge ATM usage fees. In some cases, these fees are charged solely to users who are not customers of the bank that operates the ATM; in other cases, they apply to all users.
In order to allow a more diverse range of devices to attach to their networks, some interbank networks have passed rules expanding the definition of an ATM to be a terminal that either has the vault within its footprint or utilises the vault or cash drawer within the merchant establishment, which allows for the use of a scrip cash dispenser.
Leased lines are preferable to plain old telephone service POTS lines because they require less time to establish a connection.
Less-trafficked machines will usually rely on a dial-up modem on a POTS line rather than using a leased line, since a leased line may be comparatively more expensive to operate compared to a POTS line.
That dilemma may be solved as high-speed Internet VPN connections become more ubiquitous. In addition to methods employed for transaction security and secrecy, all communications traffic between the ATM and the Transaction Processor may also be encrypted using methods such as SSL.
There are no hard international or government-compiled numbers totaling the complete number of ATMs in use worldwide. To simplify the analysis of ATM usage around the world, financial institutions generally divide the world into seven regions, due to the penetration rates, usage statistics, and features deployed.
Due to heavier computing demands and the falling price of personal computer —like architectures, ATMs have moved away from custom hardware architectures using microcontrollers or application-specific integrated circuits and have adopted the hardware architecture of a personal computer, such as USB connections for peripherals, Ethernet and IP communications, and use personal computer operating systems.
Business owners often lease ATMs from service providers. However, based on the economies of scale, the price of equipment has dropped to the point where many business owners are simply paying for ATMs using a credit card.
New ADA voice and text-to-speech guidelines imposed in , but required by March  have forced many ATM owners to either upgrade non-compliant machines or dispose them if they are not upgradable, and purchase new compliant equipment.
This has created an avenue for hackers and thieves to obtain ATM hardware at junkyards from improperly disposed decommissioned machines.
The vault of an ATM is within the footprint of the device itself and is where items of value are kept. Scrip cash dispensers do not incorporate a vault.
ATM vaults are supplied by manufacturers in several grades. Factors influencing vault grade selection include cost, weight, regulatory requirements, ATM type, operator risk avoidance practices and internal volume requirements.
ATM manufacturers recommend that a vault be attached to the floor to prevent theft,  though there is a record of a theft conducted by tunnelling into an ATM floor.
With the migration to commodity Personal Computer hardware, standard commercial "off-the-shelf" operating systems and programming environments can be used inside of ATMs.
There is a computer industry security view that general public desktop operating systems os have greater risks as operating systems for cash dispensing machines than other types of operating systems like secure real-time operating systems RTOS.
Linux is also finding some reception in the ATM marketplace. Most major ATM manufacturers provide software packages that implement these protocols.
Newer protocols such as IFX have yet to find wide acceptance by transaction processors. With the move to a more standardised software base, financial institutions have been increasingly interested in the ability to pick and choose the application programs that drive their equipment.
While the perceived benefit of XFS is similar to the Java's " write once, run anywhere " mantra, often different ATM hardware vendors have different interpretations of the XFS standard.
The result of these differences in interpretation means that ATM applications typically use a middleware to even out the differences among various platforms.
This has created a new breed of ATM applications commonly referred to as programmable applications. These types of applications allows for an entirely new host of applications in which the ATM terminal can do more than only communicate with the ATM switch.
It is now empowered to connected to other content servers and video banking systems. With the move of ATMs to industry-standard computing environments, concern has risen about the integrity of the ATM's software stack.
The number of human bank tellers in the United States increased from approximately , in to approximately , in Counter-intuitively, a contributing factor may be the introduction of automated teller machines.
ATMs let a branch operate with fewer tellers, making it cheaper for banks to open more branches. This likely resulted in more tellers being hired to handle non-automated tasks, but further automation and online banking may reverse this increase.
Security , as it relates to ATMs, has several dimensions. ATMs also provide a practical demonstration of a number of security systems and concepts operating together and how various security concerns are addressed.
Early ATM security focused on making the terminals invulnerable to physical attack; they were effectively safes with dispenser mechanisms. A number of attacks resulted, with thieves attempting to steal entire machines by ram-raiding.
Another attack method, plofkraak , is to seal all openings of the ATM with silicone and fill the vault with a combustible gas or to place an explosive inside, attached, or near the machine.
This gas or explosive is ignited and the vault is opened or distorted by the force of the resulting explosion and the criminals can break in.
These systems use explosive gas detection sensor to detect explosive gas and to neutralise it by releasing a special explosion suppression chemical which changes the composition of the explosive gas and renders it ineffective.
Several attacks in the UK at least one of which was successful have involved digging a concealed tunnel under the ATM and cutting through the reinforced base to remove the money.
Modern ATM physical security, per other modern money-handling security, concentrates on denying the use of the money inside the machine to a thief, by using different types of Intelligent Banknote Neutralisation Systems.
A common method is to simply rob the staff filling the machine with money. To avoid this, the schedule for filling them is kept secret, varying and random.
The money is often kept in cassettes, which will dye the money if incorrectly opened. The security of ATM transactions relies mostly on the integrity of the secure cryptoprocessor : the ATM often uses general commodity components that sometimes are not considered to be " trusted systems ".
Encryption of personal information, required by law in many jurisdictions, is used to prevent fraud. There have also been a number of incidents of fraud by Man-in-the-middle attacks , where criminals have attached fake keypads or card readers to existing machines.
These have then been used to record customers' PINs and bank card information in order to gain unauthorised access to their accounts.
Various ATM manufacturers have put in place countermeasures to protect the equipment they manufacture from these threats.
Alternative methods to verify cardholder identities have been tested and deployed in some countries, such as finger and palm vein patterns,  iris , and facial recognition technologies.
Openings on the customer side of ATMs are often covered by mechanical shutters to prevent tampering with the mechanisms when they are not in use.
Alarm sensors are placed inside ATMs and their servicing areas to alert their operators when doors have been opened by unauthorised personnel.
To protect against hackers, ATMs have a built-in firewall. Once the firewall has detected malicious attempts to break into the machine remotely, the firewall locks down the machine.
Rules are usually set by the government or ATM operating body that dictate what happens when integrity systems fail.
Depending on the jurisdiction, a bank may or may not be liable when an attempt is made to dispense a customer's money from an ATM and the money either gets outside of the ATM's vault, or was exposed in a non-secure fashion, or they are unable to determine the state of the money after a failed transaction.
In some countries, multiple security cameras and security guards are a common feature. Consultants of ATM operators assert that the issue of customer security should have more focus by the banking industry;  it has been suggested that efforts are now more concentrated on the preventive measure of deterrent legislation than on the problem of ongoing forced withdrawals.
At least as far back as 30 July , consultants of the industry have advised for the adoption of an emergency PIN system for ATMs, where the user is able to send a silent alarm in response to a threat.
In , three towns outside Cleveland, Ohio, in response to an ATM crime wave, adopted legislation requiring that an emergency telephone number switch be installed at all outdoor ATMs within their jurisdiction.
In China and elsewhere, many efforts to promote security have been made. On-premises ATMs are often located inside the bank's lobby, which may be accessible 24 hours a day.
These lobbies have extensive security camera coverage, a courtesy telephone for consulting with the bank staff, and a security guard on the premises.
Bank lobbies that are not guarded 24 hours a day may also have secure doors that can only be opened from outside by swiping the bank card against a wall-mounted scanner, allowing the bank to identify which card enters the building.
Most ATMs will also display on-screen safety warnings and may also be fitted with convex mirrors above the display allowing the user to see what is happening behind them.
As of , the only claim available about the extent of ATM-connected homicides is that they range from to 1, per year in the US, covering only cases where the victim had an ATM card and the card was used by the killer after the known time of death.
The term jackpotting is used to describe one method criminals utilize to steal money from an ATM. The thieves gain physical access through a small hole drilled in the machine.
They disconnect the existing hard drive and connect an external drive using an industrial endoscope. They then depress an internal button that reboots the device so that it is now under the control of the external drive.
They can then have the ATM dispense all of its cash. In recent years, many ATMs also encrypt the hard disk. This means that actually creating the software for jackpotting is more difficult, and provides more security for the ATM.
ATMs were originally developed as cash dispensers, and have evolved to provide many other bank-related functions:.
In some countries, especially those which benefit from a fully integrated cross-bank network e. Videoconferencing teller machines are currently referred to as Interactive Teller Machines.
Benton Smith, in the Idaho Business Review writes "The software that allows interactive teller machines to function was created by a Salt Lake City-based company called uGenius, a producer of video banking software.
Before an ATM is placed in a public place, it typically has undergone extensive testing with both test money and the backend computer systems that allow it to perform transactions.
Banking customers also have come to expect high reliability in their ATMs,  which provides incentives to ATM providers to minimise machine and network failures.
Financial consequences of incorrect machine operation also provide high degrees of incentive to minimise malfunctions. ATMs and the supporting electronic financial networks are generally very reliable, with industry benchmarks typically producing If ATM networks do go out of service, customers could be left without the ability to make transactions until the beginning of their bank's next time of opening hours.
This said, not all errors are to the detriment of customers; there have been cases of machines giving out money without debiting the account, or giving out higher value notes as a result of incorrect denomination of banknote being loaded in the money cassettes.
Errors that can occur may be mechanical such as card transport mechanisms; keypads; hard disk failures ; envelope deposit mechanisms ; software such as operating system ; device driver ; application ; communications ; or purely down to operator error.
To aid in reliability, some ATMs print each transaction to a roll-paper journal that is stored inside the ATM, which allows its users and the related financial institutions to settle things based on the records in the journal in case there is a dispute.
In some cases, transactions are posted to an electronic journal to remove the cost of supplying journal paper to the ATM and for more convenient searching of data.
Improper money checking can cause the possibility of a customer receiving counterfeit banknotes from an ATM. While bank personnel are generally trained better at spotting and removing counterfeit cash,   the resulting ATM money supplies used by banks provide no guarantee for proper banknotes, as the Federal Criminal Police Office of Germany has confirmed that there are regularly incidents of false banknotes having been dispensed through ATMs.
Bill validation technology can be used by ATM providers to help ensure the authenticity of the cash before it is stocked in the machine; those with cash recycling capabilities include this capability.
In India, whenever a transaction fails with an ATM due to network or technical issue and if the amount does not get dispensed in spite of account being debited then the banks are supposed to return the debited amount to the customer within 7 working days from the day of receipt of complaint.
Banks are also liable to pay the late fees in case of delay in repayment of funds post 7 days. As with any device containing objects of value, ATMs and the systems they depend on to function are the targets of fraud.
Fraud against ATMs and people's attempts to use them takes several forms. The first known instance of a fake ATM was installed at a shopping mall in Manchester, Connecticut in By modifying the inner workings of a Fujitsu model ATM, a criminal gang known as the Bucklands Boys stole information from cards inserted into the machine by customers.
ATM behaviour can change during what is called "stand-in" time, where the bank's cash dispensing network is unable to access databases that contain account information possibly for database maintenance.
In order to give customers access to cash, customers may be allowed to withdraw cash up to a certain amount that may be less than their usual daily withdrawal limit, but may still exceed the amount of available money in their accounts, which could result in fraud if the customers intentionally withdraw more money than they had in their accounts.
In an attempt to prevent criminals from shoulder surfing the customer's personal identification number PIN , some banks draw privacy areas on the floor.
For a low-tech form of fraud, the easiest is to simply steal a customer's card along with its PIN. A later variant of this approach is to trap the card inside of the ATM's card reader with a device often referred to as a Lebanese loop.
When the customer gets frustrated by not getting the card back and walks away from the machine, the criminal is able to remove the card and withdraw cash from the customer's account, using the card and its PIN.
This type of fraud has spread globally. Although somewhat replaced in terms of volume by skimming incidents, a re-emergence of card trapping has been noticed in regions such as Europe, where EMV chip and PIN cards have increased in circulation.
Another simple form of fraud involves attempting to get the customer's bank to issue a new card and its PIN and stealing them from their mail. By contrast, a newer high-tech method of operating, sometimes called card skimming or card cloning , involves the installation of a magnetic card reader over the real ATM's card slot and the use of a wireless surveillance camera or a modified digital camera or a false PIN keypad to observe the user's PIN.
Card data is then cloned into a duplicate card and the criminal attempts a standard cash withdrawal. The availability of low-cost commodity wireless cameras, keypads, card readers, and card writers has made it a relatively simple form of fraud, with comparatively low risk to the fraudsters.
In an attempt to stop these practices, countermeasures against card cloning have been developed by the banking industry, in particular by the use of smart cards which cannot easily be copied or spoofed by unauthenticated devices, and by attempting to make the outside of their ATMs tamper evident.
This fallback behaviour can be exploited. Card cloning and skimming can be detected by the implementation of magnetic card reader heads and firmware that can read a signature embedded in all magnetic stripes during the card production process.
The concept and various methods of copying the contents of an ATM card's magnetic stripe onto a duplicate card to access other people's financial information was well known in the hacking communities by late After getting all the information from the videotapes, he was able to produce clone cards which not only allowed him to withdraw the full daily limit for each account, but also allowed him to sidestep withdrawal limits by using multiple copied cards.
Stone was sentenced to five years and six months in prison. A talking ATM is a type of ATM that provides audible instructions so that people who cannot read a screen can independently use the machine, therefore effectively eliminating the need for assistance from an external, potentially malevolent source.
All audible information is delivered privately through a standard headphone jack on the face of the machine.
Alternatively, some banks such as the Nordea and Swedbank use a built-in external speaker which may be invoked by pressing the talk button on the keypad.
A postal interactive kiosk may share many components of an ATM including a vault , but it only dispenses items related to postage.
A scrip cash dispenser may have many components in common with an ATM, but it lacks the ability to dispense physical cash and consequently requires no vault.
Instead, the customer requests a withdrawal transaction from the machine, which prints a receipt or scrip.
The customer then takes this receipt to a nearby sales clerk, who then exchanges it for cash from the till. A teller assist unit TAU is distinct in that it is designed to be operated solely by trained personnel and not by the general public, does integrate directly into interbank networks, and usually is controlled by a computer that is not directly integrated into the overall construction of the unit.
All the usual ATM functions are available, except for withdrawing cash. Most banks in Taiwan provide these online services.
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Three thousand post offices are to have cashpoint services, but we must face the hard realities. There is also a practical implication relating to cashpoint machines, in that many sub-post offices are too small to house them.
Marching people to cashpoints was an original suggestion which was rightly dismissed as a nonsense. I take the point about post offices and especially cashpoint services.
Therefore, in looking at social exclusion and formal entry of people into the financial services sector, we need a multi-faceted approach, beginning with cashpoints.
They may be miles from a cashpoint machine. Surely sooner rather than later cashpoint machines will do other things than provide cash and statements.
Many of our older people want to remain active but have problems with using buses, cashpoints and supermarkets. I mentioned the physical problems of cashpoints in smaller post offices, where they are simply not an option.
We have seen cashpoints become entirely normal and universally accepted. Cashpoints are not terribly good early warning systems if pensioners fail to collect their pensions.
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